Re: The Cosmological Constant
I don't recall ever seeing a lecture on this particular aspect of the cosmological constant, but lets see if we can puzzle out what the effects would be.
First, the cosmological constant is the proposed energy of empty space which is thought to be responsible for the acceleration of the expansion of space. The expansion of space is the cause of red-shift, or the doppler effect of light as distant galaxies are receding the "pitch" of light emitted from those galaxies shifts just as the pitch of a train engine's sound changes when it recedes from us, the stationary observer.
Time is the change in relationship of objects in space as entropy continues to increase in the universe.
Objects interact with eachother at luminal, or sub-luminal speeds. Meaning, for one electron to effect another electron it has to exchange a photon which travels at the speed of light. This is how things interact, and how the relationship of objects changes.
The cosmological constant is responsible for the expansion of space, but the effect is small and cumulative. So, while there is a large red shift for very very distant galaxies, there is a much smaller red shift for nearby galaxies, and stars within our own galaxy.
For the stretching of space to have an impact on time it would need to have an appreciable effect even on the interaction between atoms which is a very small distance.
The rate of expansion now is i think .025 meters per second over a distance of one light year. That number may be wrong, but it's pretty close from what i remember. Basically, it takes quite a lot of space to equate to measureable expansion of space on macroscopic scales.
Take into consideration also that you have to be traveling at speeds near C to achieve time dialation then i think the cosmic constant shouldn't have much impact locally on time. Of course where it really does have a big impact is in extremely long distances, such as those we observe between ourselves and very very distant galaxies where we are actually in effect looking backward in time, as the expansion of space has cause light to have to travel very far indeed to reach us, the light coming to us from such distant reachese of space is in fact pictures of the very early universe.
So i would say that it looks to me like the CC has effect "globally" not locally.
But then, the CC is the energy of space itself, which permeates everything we know of, and so whatever effect it does have locally should be a part of what we regularly experience as the "Normal" flow of time. As energy, and being equivalent to matter, it would have an effect on the path of light traveling through space and have it's own gravity.
As i say, these are my speculations, and i would have to yield the floor to anybody who has had more education in this area.