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Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations 
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Post Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
The Hero with a Thousand Faces - by Joseph Campbell



Sun Feb 20, 2011 3:14 am
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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
I'm about halfway through Campbell's book.

I'm really enjoying Campbell's synopses of many of the world's myths. What strikes me most is how many primitive cultures seemed so instinctively attuned to what Jung called the universal archetypes. (It occurs to me that Plato's forms might very well be the same thing.) We had some kind of spiritual connection with our archetypes (which subconsciously stem from the psychological trauma of birth). Campbell connects our rituals and myths to these archetypes. It also seems to me that we instinctively took these myths and rituals as metaphors. Where religion went "wrong" (as I would see it) is when we started to pretending that these ritual and mythologies were literally true and, especially, with the Christian lie of an afterlife.

Most of the ancient cultures celebrated and embraced life and death. We can see in Eastern cultures that the truly enlightened are those who no longer see individual mortality but a continuum of life.

Quote:
The Sun in the Underworld, Lord of the Dead, is the other side of the same radiant king who rules and gives the day; for "Who is it that sustains you from the sky and from the earth? And who is it that brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living? And who is it that rules and regulates all affairs?"71 We recall the Wachaga tale of the very poor man, Kyazimba, who was transported by a crone to the zenith, where the Sun rests at noon;73 there the Great Chief bestowed on him prosperity. And we recall the trickster-god Edshu, described in a tale from the other coast of Africa:73 spreading strife was his greatest joy. These are differing views of the same dreadful Providence. In him are contained and from him proceed the contradictions, good and evil, death and life, pain and pleasure, boons and deprivation. As the person of the sun door, he is the fountainhead of all the pairs of opposites. (pg. 123)


As such, I'm starting to get a very different idea of Christianity. I can see now how the Jesus story does so greatly resemble and mimic these earlier myths that it does seem that such stories were not taken so literally or they at least resonated with people who were used to looking at the world in a very metaphorical way. Likewise, I can see how people could accept the Old Testament God, who was both good and bad at the same time. Maybe God,as a father figure, represents a duality of good and evil. Not sure if I'm being very clear because it's hard for me to wrap my mind around this stuff.

My final thought is that modern people are disconnected from this metaphorical perspective by virtue of our own reason. This is good in many ways, but it also means we're cut off from insight into our archetypes which can only be accessed through myths and rituals. Religion doesn't help any more precisely because it has mutated into supernatural memes that are divorced from the natural world. We've essentially destroyed our coping mechanisms and insight into the metaphorical realm. This would explain why we're such a neurotic culture.

Quote:
There can be no question: the psychological dangers through which earlier generations were guided by the symbols and spiritual exercises of their mythological and religious inheritance, we today (in so far as we are unbelievers, or, if believers, in so far as our inherited beliefs fail to represent the real problems of contemporary life) must face alone, or, at best, with only tentative, impromptu, and not often very effective guidance. This is our problem as modern, "enlightened" individuals, for whom all gods and devils have been rationalized out of existence.* Nevertheless, in the multitude of myths and legends that have been preserved to us, or collected from the ends of the earth, we may yet see delineated something of our still human course. To hear and profit, however, one may have to submit somehow to purgation and surrender. And that is part of our problem: just how to do that. "Or do ye think that ye shall enter the Garden of Bliss without such trials as came to those who passed away before you?" (86)

*"The problem is not new," writes Dr. C. G. Jung, "for all ages before us have believed in gods in some form or other. Only an unparalleled impoverishment of symbolism could enable us to rediscover the gods as psychic factors, that is, as archetypes of the unconscious. . . . Heaven has become for us the cosmic space of the physicists, and the divine empyrean a fair memory of things that once were. But 'the heart glows,' and a secret unrest gnaws at the roots of our being." ("Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious." ed. cit., par. 50.)


All of this seems to hinge on prenatal and perinatal psychology which Campbell doesn't discuss much.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-_and_p ... psychology

"Prenatal and perinatal psychology is an interdisciplinary study[1][2][3] of the foundations of health in body, mind, emotions and in enduring response patterns to life. It explores the psychological and psychophysiological effects and implications of the earliest experiences of the individual, before birth ("prenatal"), as well as during and immediately after childbirth ("perinatal") on the health and learning ability of the individual and on their relationships."


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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
geo wrote:
modern people are disconnected from this metaphorical perspective by virtue of our own reason. This is good in many ways, but it also means we're cut off from insight into our archetypes which can only be accessed through myths and rituals. Religion doesn't help any more precisely because it has mutated into supernatural memes that are divorced from the natural world. We've essentially destroyed our coping mechanisms and insight into the metaphorical realm. This would explain why we're such a neurotic culture.


The chasm between dominant culture and archetypal reality is a decisive observation. The alienation of modern culture from nature is the basic cause of neurosis. This separation has deep memetic sources in religion, with the cultural mutation of the false Judeo-Christian belief in God as entity. Believing things that are not true is very dangerous, putting the culture on a delusory path that will eventually be confronted by the return of the repressed. Therapy for this mass psychological delusion requires the elimination of supernatural belief except as metaphor for natural reality.

In my view, Christianity can be redeemed against rational archetypal psychology by recognising Jesus Christ as mythic archetype for human effort to reconcile culture and nature, to overcome the fall of reason. The passion story of cross and resurrection is a tale of how depraved human society cannot see the truth, but the truth is vindicated. Damnation is separation from reality. The spiritual themes of incarnation and atonement point to salvation as arising from being at one with our bodily material presence.



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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
As I've said before, I'm not too hopeful about resurrecting Christianity, but I do think it's possible that prehistoric humans took a more metaphorical view of reality. As Wright said in TEoG, the primitives didn't even have a word for religion, and likely they didn't have a word for myth either. There was only one way of seeing the world and that was through story-telling.

This schism from nature is well-illustrated by the Garden of Eden story, and I can appreciate reading the Biblical stories as such—metaphorically. But again I have a hard time imagining that humanity will be able to reimage Christianity in such a way. I think we all would have to become atheists first, deconstruct religion and stitch it back together again in a whole new tapestry. How would this be accomplished? And how would Christianity be a part of it? How do you reconcile such primitive beliefs with a new reconciliation with nature that is largely informed by empirical evidence?

Even Campbell seems to suggest that a better path to universal love (Wright's non-zero-sumness) might be through Buddhism:

Quote:
Once we have broken free of the prejudices of our own provincially limited ecclesiastical, tribal, or national rendition of the world archetypes, it becomes possible to understand that: the supreme initiation is not that of the local motherly fathers, who then project aggression onto the neighbors for their own defense. The good news, which the World Redeemer brings and which so many have been glad to hear, zealous to preach, but reluctant, apparently, to demonstrate, is that God is love, that He can be, and is to be, loved, and that all without exception are his chil­dren. Such comparatively trivial matters as the remaining details of the credo, the techniques of worship, and devices of episcopal organization (which have so absorbed the interest of Occidental theologians that they are today seriously discussed as the “principal questions of religion,” are merely pedantic snares, unless kept ancillary to the major teaching. Indeed, where not so kept, they have a regressive effect: they reduce the father image back again to the dimensions of the totem. And this, of course, is what has happened throughout the Christian world. One would think that we had been called upon to decide or to know whom, of all of us, the Father prefers. Whereas, the teaching is much less flattering: "Judge not, that ye be not judged." The World Savior's cross, in spite of the behavior of its professed priests, is a vastly more democratic symbol than the local flag.The understanding of the final—and critical—implications of he world-redemptive words and symbols of the tradition of Christendom has been so disarranged, during the tumultuous centuries that have elapsed since St. Augustine's declaration of the holy war of the Civitas Dei against the Civitas Diaboli, that the modern thinker wishing to know the meaning of a world religion (i.e., of a doctrine of universal love) must turn his mind to the other great (and much older) universal communion: that of the Buddha, where the primary word still is peace—peace to all beings. (pg. 135)


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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
geo wrote:
Campbell seems to suggest that a better path to universal love (Wright's non-zero-sumness) might be through Buddhism


Geo, the comparison between Christianity and Buddhism is very interesting. I like Buddhism, and consider that the eight fold noble path is a key to enlightenment. The eight steps are understanding, thought, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration. The acrostic is 'use these steps and leave everything mara causes'.

Where I consider that Christianity is ultimately superior to Buddhism is that the story of Christ is about the confrontation with evil, and the victory of good over evil in the world. Buddhism considers that suffering is the first of the four noble truths, and that nothing can be done about suffering except individual action to understand suffering as caused by attachment, to become dispassionate and to follow the eightfold noble path.

By contrast, Christianity says that people can name and overcome suffering through a transformation of the world by pure love, following the example of Christ. So in this sense Christianity is dynamic while Buddhism is passive, Christianity is engaged while Buddhism is detached, and Christianity is about liberation while Buddhism is about escape. Christianity also has a deeper understanding of economic development and politics, through its amazing claim that people who have will be given more in the parable of the talents.

Christian eschatology, the theory of global transformation, can be understood against this framework, as a way to reconcile Christianity with science, retaining its ethical core while discarding the dross of traditional supernatural metaphysics. All this dross is just corrupt accretion that is not essential to real faith.



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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
Robert, to each his own. I can appreciate that you are able to glean the good stuff out of Christianity. It just doesn't resonate much with me at this point in my life. For what it's worth, I am beginning to see the likelihood that Christianity grew out of many earlier classical myths and was viewed much more symbolically in the past which is a point I had been very skeptical about.


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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
Quote:
For what it's worth, I am beginning to see the likelihood that Christianity grew out of many earlier classical myths and was viewed much more symbolically in the past which is a point I had been very skeptical about.


Yes Geo, and welcome to the fold!

You were very skeptical about all of this previously and in reading what you've posted here I see that your eyes are opening to the depth of the issue. That's what going through Campbell tends to do to people. And there's plenty more insight to add to Campbell's works for sure. He was considered as going beyond both Freud and Jung with his life's works and insights, but there is still plenty of room for others to go beyond Campbell and I think if he were alive today he'd be very proud of many of the comparative mythologists of our generation and what they've been accomplishing in terms of popularizing these truths and getting out into the general community via the invention of the Internet.


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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
Wouldn't an important question be: to whom did these symbolic or metaphorical understandings originally appeal? I mean to ask whether we're talking about select groups of devotees or the common, unlettered person. What tat and Robert seem to say is that once, before a church got hold of the sacred ideas, they were understood not literally but imaginatively, or as not forcing doctrines on people but rather expressing timeless natural truths through myth. Then, a priestly class essentially hijacked all that for use as institutional controls. They shifted the focus onto the literal framework of the scriptural stories in an effort to steer people away from the true content. Is that an accurate summary of the view?


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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
DWill wrote:
Wouldn't an important question be: to whom did these symbolic or metaphorical understandings originally appeal? I mean to ask whether we're talking about select groups of devotees or the common, unlettered person. What tat and Robert seem to say is that once, before a church got hold of the sacred ideas, they were understood not literally but imaginatively, or as not forcing doctrines on people but rather expressing timeless natural truths through myth. Then, a priestly class essentially hijacked all that for use as institutional controls. They shifted the focus onto the literal framework of the scriptural stories in an effort to steer people away from the true content. Is that an accurate summary of the view?


I had previously speculated that prehistoric folk would have viewed the world in a more metaphorical—less certain—way. They told stories to explain the workings of the world which is why so many of the old stories end with that's why the cheetah has spots or elephants large ears. The ancient people would not have had the certainty which came later with empirical study. This would also explain why during our polytheistic phase that we could so easily take on more gods or could choose between cults that worshipped specific deities while acknowledging the existence of others.

Campbell addresses your question later in the book. He says that when we pay too close attention to the symbols, we can lose sight of the actual meaning.

From page 202:

"Symbols are only the vehicles of communication; they must not be mistaken for the final term, the tenor, of their reference. No matter how attractive or impressive they may seem, they remain but convenient means, accommodated to the understanding. Hence the personality or personalities of God--whether represented in trinitarian, dualistic, or unitarian terms, pictorially or verbally, as documented fact or apocalyptic vision--no one should attempt to read or interpret as the final thing. The problem of the theologian is to keep his symbol translucent, so that it may not block out the very light it is supposed to convey. "For then alone do we know God truly," writes Saint Thomas Aquinas, "when we believe that He is far above all that man can possibly think of God." And in the Kena Upanishad, in the same spirit: "To know is not to know; not to know is to know." Mistaking a vehicle for its tenor may lead to spilling not only of valueless ink, but of valuable blood."

(That's some damned fine writing by the way)

And from page 213:

"In the later stages of many mythologies, the key images hide like needles in great haystacks of secondary anecdote and rationalization; for when a civilization has passed from a mythological to a secular point of view, the older images are no longer felt or quite approved. In Hellenistic Greece and in Imperial Rome, the ancient gods were reduced to mere civic patrons, household pets, and literary favorites. Uncomprehended inherited themes, such as that of the Minotaur—the dark and terrible night aspect of an old Egypto-Cretan representation of the incarnate sun god and divine king—were rationalized and reinterpreted to suit contemporary ends. Mt. Olympus became a Riviera of trite scandals and affairs, and the mother-goddesses hysterical nymphs. The myths were read as superhuman romances."

Also on page 213:

"Wherever the poetry of myth is interpreted as biography, history or science, it is killed. The living images become only remote facts of a distant time or sky. Furthermore, it is never difficult to demonstrate that as science and history mythology is absurd. When a civilization begins to reinterpret its mythology in this way, the life goes out of it, temples become museums, and the link between the two perspectives is dissolved. Such a blight has certainly descended on the Bible and on a great part of the Christian cult.

To bring the images back to life, one has to seek, not interesting applications to modern affairs, but illuminating hints from the inspired past. When these are found, vast areas of half-dead iconography disclose again their permanently human meaning."


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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
That was a good selection of quotes Geo. The main issue is that in the mystery schools the symbols were presented as just that, symbols. The symbol of the sun dying for three days metaphorically and then appearing to rise once again as per the movement on the sun dials. This mystery passed down through the ages under several mythic designations. And it showed up in Christianity rather late on the scene. The Alexandrians were quite privy to the meaning of these mythological symbols. And the Gnostics were likely the original Christians when all is said and done, only to have had an orthodox tradition begin to arise later which took these metaphorical symbols and presented them in terms of historical fact. That's the shifting from an esoteric reading to an exoteric reading of the very same mythological symbols.

Dwill, I suspect that the orthodox tradition came in response to the persecution Christians were receiving for blabbing the ancient mysteries publically - the resurrection and so on. By that time it was a capital punishment to divulge the ancient mysteries to the vulgar public, which is precisely what the Christians were doing by taking these mystery symbols and passing them around. The only way to reverse what had been done is to simply shift the interpretation of the symbols to a strictly historical reading. Then the meanings are once again put back into secrecy which is where the state wanted them at that point in time. This subject matter was for the initiates of the mystery schoools. That's what it had come down to by the beginning of the common era under Roman law anyhow.

So it wasn't necessarily an evil intention on the part of the orthodoxy at first. Not considering the problem in these terms. But as time went on the mythological symbols were continually passed on as historical fact and the esoteric sects were all but wiped out in the process. And it was a long drawn out process taking several centuries. Origen tried to speak up about this very thing by mentioning how ridiculous it is to take all of these stories as literal fact - such as the six day creation and Jesus going up to the top of a mountain to be tempted by Satan - and he payed the price for speaking out against the will of the orthodoxy. So it gets complicated to try and decode but the bottom line is that there were people who knew good and well not to take all of these mythic symbols too literally and they were put down by those who were insisting that the symbols be taken literally...


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Last edited by tat tvam asi on Mon Mar 21, 2011 8:02 pm, edited 1 time in total.



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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
geo wrote:
I had previously speculated that prehistoric folk would have viewed the world in a more metaphorical—less certain—way. They told stories to explain the workings of the world which is why so many of the old stories end with that's why the cheetah has spots or elephants large ears. The ancient people would not have had the certainty which came later with empirical study. This would also explain why during our polytheistic phase that we could so easily take on more gods or could choose between cults that worshipped specific deities while acknowledging the existence of others.

This seems a difficult one to decide, if it even has a general answer. When I consider hunter-gatherer or chieftain societies viewing gods metaphorically, I have trouble seeing people sacrificing to, appeasing, praying to, or worshiping a metaphor. There is a true efficacy in the gods for the early societies, so I'd lean toward thinking they see gods less metaphorically than do the citizens of more developed societies. Polytheists may accept other gods readily, but could the reason be that they view them as actually existing? There would be less point in accepting more metaphors. Wright outlines the evolution of God as going from polytheism to monolatry--with monolatry being the stage where all the gods are real, but only one is the special god of the group--to monotheism, where just the group's god is real. I think of a metaphorically inclined religion as the phase in which the religion has the weakest hold on the believer. I know Christians who are like this, not believing that Christ's resurrection is meant to be taken literally (and RT seems to be in this group).

So I think I am looking at this question more historically than Campbell is. His passages point out the dangers of people mistaking the shadows for substance, but I don't know if he somehow establishes that in history there was a time when this wasn't the case. There would have to be evidence of such a 'paradigm shift' happening.


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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
You're hitting a real important point here Dwill. As metaphor the religion is far weaker in terms of social power and control as opposed to an exoteric literalist reading. Just look around. There would be no fundamentalist movements without the literal historical readings. They are the call to arms for Christian soliders fighting for the lord... You can't rally that kind of hatred (gays, Jews, any non-Christian) and superiority with a metaphorical structured set of symbolism aimed at realizing that the God you seek to know through the religion is simply the mystery of existence itself, and in it's within you and all those around you. Not a very effect call to arms.

Campbell never established any point on an historical chart and says, 'literalism all started right here.' That isn't really what he's talking about anyways. I don't even think that Tulip would make that claim either because there seems to have always been a mix of literalists and non-literalists. But the myth makers who constructed many of these organized sets of symbols obviously knew what they were organizing as they did it. The solar mysteries about the seasonal changes and life cycles are obviously about nature, not literal Gods and God-Men. Did the creators of the Horus myth really believe that a Falcon headed God-Man walked and ruled in Egypt? Not likely. Did common folks think that Horus was really an ancient ruler of Egypt during the Neter reign? Probably so...


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D) YEC theory put to rest!


Last edited by tat tvam asi on Tue Mar 22, 2011 11:28 am, edited 1 time in total.



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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
Just considering the Greek (and Roman) Gods, which are probably the best known, the pantheon included

Poseidon (Neptune) - God of the Sea
Apollo - God of the Sun
Hades (Pluto) - God of Death
Zeus (Jupiter) - King of the Gods - Sky Father
Hera (Juno) Queen of the Gods - Sky Mother
Athena (Minerva) - Goddess of Wisdom
Demeter (Ceres) - Goddess of the Harvest
Aphrodite (Venus) - Goddess of Beauty
Hermes (Mercury) - Messenger of the Gods

When you read the myths, it is apparent that the gods symbolise their realm, so Poseidon in this sense actually is the sea. Gradually, the personification of the deity separated Poseidon from the sea itself, becoming a transcendental deity who controls the sea. Throughout, there is a tension between a rational scientific mentality that uses language of the gods as metaphor, and a credulous popular mentality that takes the metaphor as literal truth. Because literalism has such emotional resonance it has tended to win out, leading contemporary rational people to simply reject all god talk, without seeing that the literal stories are a degraded ignorant corruption of an original real insight.

This applies throughout Christianity as well. The idea that Jesus Christ is a metaphor for the sun has strong explanatory power for the original motivations of the authors of the New Testament. However, the frenzy of orthodox conformism has blinded us to this deconstruction.

Campbell, in his reading of Freud and Jung, provides an immensely valuable psychoanalytic deconstruction of the meaning of myth. People cannot comprehend the scale of literalist delusion, so the therapeutic task has to progressively circle around the discussion in order gradually to home in on the assumptions that are hidden beneath popular belief. Understanding the real meaning of symbols has a liberatory social and psychic impact, but the forces of repression and suppression remain very strong.

Another book that picks up these themes in a valuable way is The Cry for Myth by Rollo May. He argues that myths are the stories that give meaning to our lives. By this understanding, even true beliefs have a mythic function when they provide people with an ultimate sense of purpose and direction.



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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
DWill wrote:
I have trouble seeing people sacrificing to, appeasing, praying to, or worshiping a metaphor. There is a true efficacy in the gods for the early societies, so I'd lean toward thinking they see gods less metaphorically than do the citizens of more developed societies. Polytheists may accept other gods readily, but could the reason be that they view them as actually existing?


Robert Tulip wrote:
When you read the myths, it is apparent that the gods symbolise their realm, so Poseidon in this sense actually is the sea. Gradually, the personification of the deity separated Poseidon from the sea itself, becoming a transcendental deity who controls the sea. Throughout, there is a tension between a rational scientific mentality that uses language of the gods as metaphor, and a credulous popular mentality that takes the metaphor as literal truth.


I know I'm throwing out some half-baked ideas here and not articulating them very well. But when I say that the ancients viewed the world in a less defined or more dream-like way (better than "metaphorical"), it is as a child's way of seeing the world versus an adult's. That's not to say, the ancients didn't take their rituals and sacred myths seriously. They lived in a world of life-and-death struggles where any flood or drought would have been perceived as punishment by angry gods. So I can imagine that an animal sacrifice or any other perceived connection to the unknown would have been taken very seriously. But as time went on and we began to view the world in more concrete ways, understanding weather patterns not as the vindictiveness of the gods but as random natural events, we began to lose that child-like perspective. The ancients would have had been more in tune to the metaphorical meanings of symbols because they saw the whole world that way. Indeed, to hunter-gatherers there was no separation between the spiritual and physical worlds. Spirits existed, not only in humans, but in all other animals, plants, rocks, and natural phenomena such as thunder and floods and earthquakes. (Robert does an exceptional job explaining this above).

I read somewhere that the ancient Greeks really believed in Zeus and others as literal deities, but that later when Athens and Sparta became major city-states, the gods were viewed more metaphorically. As Campbell says: "In Hellenistic Greece and in Imperial Rome, the ancient gods were reduced to mere civic patrons, household pets, and literary favorites." Perhaps as the gods became less literal--less real--the world itself likewise became less mystical. A division was made between the spirit world and natural world and those metaphorical meanings of symbols were lost.

Campbell actually describes this as a fall from "superconsciousness" to "unconsciousness" in the first chapter of Part II—The Cosmogenic Cycle:

"Indeed, the lapse of superconsciousness into the state of unconsciousness is precisely the meaning of the Biblical image of the Fall. The constriction of consciousness, to which we owe the fact that we see not the source of the universal power but only the phenomenal forms reflected from that power, turns superconsciousness into unconsciousness and, at the same instant and by the same token, creates the world. Redemption consists in the return to superconsciousness and therewith the dissolution of the world. This is the great theme and formula of the cosmogonic cycle, the mythical image of the world's coming to manifestation and subsequent return into the nonmanifest condition."

I've said before that the Fall is the time when we began to see ourselves as above nature, fashioned in God's image and saved by Jesus and blessed with everlasting life. Maybe this is kind of what Campbell is saying here.


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Tue Mar 22, 2011 10:18 am
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Post Re: Part 2 - Ch. 1: Emanations
tat tvam asi wrote:
Campbell never established any point on an historical chart and says, 'literalism all started right here.'


Here's an interesting footnote on page 222:

By the way, it's good to have a PDF of Campbell's book on my desktop, so that whenever I want to quote something from the text, all I have to do is search a few words of the sentence and then I can copy and paste from the PDF.

"This recognition of the secondary nature of the personality of whatever deity is worshiped is characteristic of most of the traditions of the world (see, for example, supra, p. 164, note 154). In Christianity, Mohammedanism, and Judaism, however, the personality of the divinity is taught to be final—which makes it comparatively difficult for the members of these communions to understand how one may go beyond the limitations of their own anthropomorphic divinity. The result has been, on the one hand, a general obfuscation of the symbols, and on the other, a god-ridden bigotry such as is unmatched elsewhere in the history of religion. For a discussion of the possible origin of this aberration, see Sigmund Freud, Moses and Monotheism (translated by James Strachey; Standard Edn., XXIII, 1964). (Orig. 1939.)"


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Tue Mar 22, 2011 10:29 am
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