Online reading group and book discussion forum
  HOME FORUMS BOOKS LINKS DONATE ADVERTISE CONTACT  
View unanswered posts | View active topics It is currently Wed Jul 23, 2014 2:48 am




Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 42 posts ] • Topic evaluate: Evaluations: 0, 0.00 on the average.Evaluations: 0, 0.00 on the average.Evaluations: 0, 0.00 on the average.Evaluations: 0, 0.00 on the average.Evaluations: 0, 0.00 on the average.  Go to page 1, 2, 3  Next
To what extent is moral behavior situational? 
Author Message
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
Masters


Joined: Jul 2005
Posts: 450
Location: Sunnyvale, CA
Thanks: 5
Thanked: 43 times in 34 posts
Gender: None specified

Post To what extent is moral behavior situational?
Here's the most striking and disturbing issue that arose when I was reading the book.

Most people believe that they have a definite internal sense of right and wrong. Different people may reach different moral conclusions. There are argument about where those moral judgments come from: biology, childhood upbringing, societal beliefs, religious dogma, etc. However, there's a general consensus that most adults possess intrinsic beliefs about what actions are morally acceptable.

However, The Lucifer Effect challenges that consensus. If you put someone in an unusual situation, and they may, after a short time, do things that previously would have viewed as inconceivable. The Stanford Prison Experiment, Milgram experiment, and Abu Ghraib all demonstrate the depressing extent to which ethical practice is situational. And you're deluding yourself if you assert that you would never succumb to such situational pressures.

Any thoughts?



Tue Nov 06, 2007 11:11 pm
Profile
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
The Pope of Literature


Joined: Nov 2004
Posts: 2553
Location: decentralized
Thanks: 0
Thanked: 0 time in 0 post
Gender: None specified

Post 
A reasonable first step to assessing those issues would be to examine what you mean by "moral behavior". Is behavior situational? Yeah, of course. If we weren't able to adapt our behavior to changes in situation, we'd be very short lived creatures.

Is morality situational? Yes and no, it would seem. I think that most people would agree that whether or not a particular action is moral depends in part on how it fits into the context of the time in which it takes place. To take an example from Arendt (more on this in another post), for a country like Denmark to decline Germany's request that it deport former German citizens living in Denmark may have, of itself, little or no moral consequence. But put it in the context of the Final Solution, and we're all likely to recognize that Denmark's firm refusal to provide more fodder for the concentration camp has a decidedly moral connotation. In that sense, situation is one of the major factors in our judgment of any particular moral question.

That said, the fact of a change in context doesn't necessarily change the imperatives that drive moral judgment. By refusing to kowtow to German demands for deportation, the Danish were implicitly affirming the value of moral considerations that had not changed. In some sense, they may be said to have affirmed the permanance of a kind of morality. Most of us tend to applaud that.

In an example like that of Abu Ghraib, most people aren't willing to accept the rationale that the situation somehow changed moral standards. We may still recognize that the situation influenced behavior, and it may have contributed to the personal occlusion of a sense of morality in the broader context, but it does not, thereby, obliterate that broader context.

A good reference point for understanding the matter might be Robert Jay Lifton's work on totalism. The Stanford Experiment, Abu Ghraib, Nazi Germany and, to some extent, 1930 Europe had each resulted from the creation of a kind of vacuum that militated against perspective. That is, they made total situations out of what were actually very narrow situations. The same is done, on a much more systematic and deliberate level, in torture scenarios -- close a prisoner in a small room, deprive him of sleep everything outside that room seems abstract and surreal, focus whatever concentration his has left on stimuli you control. Obliterate, in other words, all perspective, and you can compel a person to abandon their determination in regards to just about any moral conviction. But as soon as you restore their capacity to envision the broader context their former morality begins to take root again -- often accompanied by a great deal of personal trauma and guilt.


_________________
If this rule were always observed; if no man allowed any pursuit whatsoever to interfere with the tranquility of his domestic affections, Greece had not been enslaved, Caesar would have spared his country, America would have been discovered more gradually, and the empires of Mexico and Peru had not been destroyed. -- Mary Shelley, "Frankenstein; or The Modern Prometheus"


Tue Nov 06, 2007 11:36 pm
Profile
User avatar
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
BookTalk.org Hall of Fame

BookTalk.org Owner
Diamond Contributor 3

Joined: May 2002
Posts: 13861
Location: Florida
Thanks: 1878
Thanked: 720 times in 572 posts
Gender: Male
Country: United States (us)
Highscores: 9

Post 
You've read the entire book so I'm just not ready to comment on these experiments, but I am looking forward to learning more about them. As soon as I have studied them enough I'm going to be sharing my thoughts.

This is the first I've heard of the "Milgram experiment," but I'm wondering if it is the experiment involving a person being coerced into shocking another person by a figure of authority. I actually thought that the Stanford Prison Experiment was that one.

Quote:
And you're deluding yourself if you assert that you would never succumb to such situational pressures.
I'm not yet sold on this idea. Do you really think that you and I would behave like the guards in Abu Ghraib?


_________________
We generated $419.10 in donations for Christmas gifts for the kids at the Cleveland Christian Home this year. Thank you so much for helping make their Christmas a bit brighter! The gifts have been ordered from Amazon.com and I've posted the invoice.


Wed Nov 07, 2007 1:04 am
Profile Email YIM WWW
User avatar
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
BookTalk.org Hall of Fame

BookTalk.org Owner
Diamond Contributor 3

Joined: May 2002
Posts: 13861
Location: Florida
Thanks: 1878
Thanked: 720 times in 572 posts
Gender: Male
Country: United States (us)
Highscores: 9

Post 
Wikipedia has a page devoted to theMilgram experiment.

I don't think I would obey the authority figure. But it is early in the book...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milgram_experiment


_________________
We generated $419.10 in donations for Christmas gifts for the kids at the Cleveland Christian Home this year. Thank you so much for helping make their Christmas a bit brighter! The gifts have been ordered from Amazon.com and I've posted the invoice.


Wed Nov 07, 2007 1:10 am
Profile Email YIM WWW
User avatar
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
I dumpster dive for books!

Bronze Contributor

Joined: Aug 2003
Posts: 1796
Thanks: 0
Thanked: 14 times in 12 posts
Gender: Male
Country: United States (us)

Post 
Quote:
JTA: If you put someone in an unusual situation, and they may, after a short time, do things that previously would have viewed as inconceivable. The Stanford Prison Experiment, Milgram experiment, and Abu Ghraib all demonstrate the depressing extent to which ethical practice is situational. And you're deluding yourself if you assert that you would never succumb to such situational pressures.


I don't know if this proves situationalism, but instead the necessity for courage in maintaining moral values. In other words, cowardice abandons moral imperatives...not shifting situations. Now, that doesn't mean that I am the one to provide the measure of heroic moral character: my cowardice is as pronounced as most people. But I know when the deed is wrong: when I commit it or when I witness another doing it. If choose not to act accordingly, with courage, and instead submit, with cowardice, it is not the situation that defines my moral character: but my choice.

Something happens in addiction where the addict is well aware that stealing from his parents, workplace, or neighbors is wrong...offends all of his moral values and codes of honor...is disgraceful and pitiful and outright repugnant...but continues to behave as a lout and moral monster. The addict knows it is wrong, feels terrible guilt in doing so, and continues to act thusly. I don't know if Zimbardo will address this fascinating moral issue in this book: but it points out how the addict is not abandoning moral values, but knows his deeds are immoral, and is simply powerless to stop.



Wed Nov 07, 2007 11:48 am
Profile
User avatar
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
Professor

Silver Contributor

Joined: Jun 2004
Posts: 3542
Location: NJ
Thanks: 1
Thanked: 5 times in 5 posts
Gender: Male
Country: United States (us)

Post Re: To what extent is moral behavior situational?
JulianTheApostate wrote:

Most people believe that they have a definite internal sense of right and wrong....However, The Lucifer Effect challenges that consensus. If you put someone in an unusual situation, and they may, after a short time, do things that previously would have viewed as inconceivable. The Stanford Prison Experiment, Milgram experiment, and Abu Ghraib all demonstrate the depressing extent to which ethical practice is situational. And you're deluding yourself if you assert that you would never succumb to such situational pressures.

Any thoughts?


Now I never say that moral conduct is inherent and that there is an ultimate morality. Morality is what humans make of it. It is our ideas of how to function as a society that inform our moral codes. So to me, it is no surprise that a given situation would make us act differently. I just do not think that a "system", as in a coreectional facility, or any given situation magically transforms how we are inside. These systems and situations may make us more apt to act out in a certain way, but I believe that these potential actions are within the individual already and also shows how thin the veil of our morality is.

We act morally in a social situation because that is how we have built our society. There are things we ALL do in private that we would not do in public. This is why we have people who commit some crime and then we hear the neighbors say: "He was such a good boy" and all that. We all WORK toward being moral. The easy and dangerous part is slipping back into our base natures.

So, the "boot camps, prisons, hospitals and low level jobs", as Zimbardo mentions on pg 41 are far from the CAUSE of our evil actions. As a catalyst for our evil, they are ripe with possibility though. So I think we agree here Julian, if I read you correctly.

As for whether I would 'succumb to such situational pressures'...what does that mean really? The people in the Stanford experiment, so far in my reading, have all acted differently from each other and I suspect that a closer look at these people would have shown such tendencies in their behavior. I wish Zimbardo would have gone into just what screening, testing and judging they did on these people. I do not think I would 'succumb' to being a total asshole and an abusive person without cause. I base this on the fact that in EVERY system I function in, I do not kowtow to what is expected of me all the time and I am always ready to challenge an accepted norm within said systems. But who knows. Stress and pressure do count for something I suppose.


Mr. P.


_________________
I will only hold you to the standards which you should hold yourself.


Wed Nov 07, 2007 7:04 pm
Profile YIM WWW
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
Masters


Joined: Jul 2005
Posts: 450
Location: Sunnyvale, CA
Thanks: 5
Thanked: 43 times in 34 posts
Gender: None specified

Post 
Quote:
Chris: I'm not yet sold on this idea. Do you really think that you and I would behave like the guards in Abu Ghraib?

That question, along with the issues it raises, is the heart of this book. Later on, Zimbardo describes Chip Frederick, one of guards who played a central role in the Abu Ghraib scandal, and who called on Zimbardo as an expert witness. According to Zimbardo, Frederick was a well-balanced and respected before he went to Iraq. The situation drove Frederick to take actions we all regard as immoral.
Quote:
Mr. P: I wish Zimbardo would have gone into just what screening, testing and judging they did on these people.

You wish the book were longer? :lol:



Wed Nov 07, 2007 11:22 pm
Profile
User avatar
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
Professor

Silver Contributor

Joined: Jun 2004
Posts: 3542
Location: NJ
Thanks: 1
Thanked: 5 times in 5 posts
Gender: Male
Country: United States (us)

Post 
JulianTheApostate wrote:
Quote:
Chris: I'm not yet sold on this idea. Do you really think that you and I would behave like the guards in Abu Ghraib?

That question, along with the issues it raises, is the heart of this book. Later on, Zimbardo describes Chip Frederick, one of guards who played a central role in the Abu Ghraib scandal, and who called on Zimbardo as an expert witness. According to Zimbardo, Frederick was a well-balanced and respected before he went to Iraq. The situation drove Frederick to take actions we all regard as immoral.
Quote:
Mr. P: I wish Zimbardo would have gone into just what screening, testing and judging they did on these people.

You wish the book were longer? :lol:


I see your point. Mayhaps the website covers this? I will check it out.

Mr. P.


_________________
I will only hold you to the standards which you should hold yourself.


Thu Nov 08, 2007 9:46 am
Profile YIM WWW
User avatar
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
BookTalk.org Hall of Fame

BookTalk.org Owner
Diamond Contributor 3

Joined: May 2002
Posts: 13861
Location: Florida
Thanks: 1878
Thanked: 720 times in 572 posts
Gender: Male
Country: United States (us)
Highscores: 9

Post 
Julian said:

Quote:
That question, along with the issues it raises, is the heart of this book. Later on, Zimbardo describes Chip Frederick, one of guards who played a central role in the Abu Ghraib scandal, and who called on Zimbardo as an expert witness. According to Zimbardo, Frederick was a well-balanced and respected before he went to Iraq. The situation drove Frederick to take actions we all regard as immoral.


I just finished Chapter 1 and have now watched several videos about the Stanford Prison Experiment. I really would like to believe I'm not such a follower and would be one of the few that stands up and puts an end to the evil. Obviously, from these experiments, and from the atrocities committed throughout the world and throughout history, we're learning that good people can become bad people if placed in such situations.


_________________
We generated $419.10 in donations for Christmas gifts for the kids at the Cleveland Christian Home this year. Thank you so much for helping make their Christmas a bit brighter! The gifts have been ordered from Amazon.com and I've posted the invoice.


Thu Nov 08, 2007 12:07 pm
Profile Email YIM WWW
User avatar
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
I dumpster dive for books!

Bronze Contributor

Joined: Aug 2003
Posts: 1796
Thanks: 0
Thanked: 14 times in 12 posts
Gender: Male
Country: United States (us)

Post 
Quote:
Chris: Obviously, from these experiments, and from the atrocities committed throughout the world and throughout history, we're learning that good people can become bad people if placed in such situations.


One question that arises from this (and I agree with your point here Chris) is: are these good people still responsible for their bad behavior? Are we able to judge their deeds immoral, and then take another step and somehow hold them accountable?

This links directly to the challenge that Hannah Arendt raises in the chapter, Personal Responsibility Under Dictatorship from Responsibility and Judgement:
Quote:
....For behind the unwillingness to judge lurks the suspicion that no one is a free agent, and hence the doubt that anyone is responsible or could be expected to answer for what he has done.
Arendt raises this point in discussing the many responses to her book Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil of which many arguments were made dismissing any moral culpability on the part of individuals unleashing their evil during the NAZI reich. The forces of history, societal structures, dialectical movements, whatever...blame anything else, but do not hold individual free agents accountable for specific, concrete, actual deeds they commit. Perhaps blame isn't the right term. Maybe all we are left with is accountability.

But how do we hold people accountable if we deny them free agency?



Thu Nov 08, 2007 12:47 pm
Profile
User avatar
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
BookTalk.org Hall of Fame

BookTalk.org Owner
Diamond Contributor 3

Joined: May 2002
Posts: 13861
Location: Florida
Thanks: 1878
Thanked: 720 times in 572 posts
Gender: Male
Country: United States (us)
Highscores: 9

Post 
Quote:
But how do we hold people accountable if we deny them free agency?


Exactly. This is scary stuff we're discussing. If we aren't accountable for our actions and we're all simply products of our situations, environments and genes, what is then the purpose of punishment, prisons, fines, fees, etc...


_________________
We generated $419.10 in donations for Christmas gifts for the kids at the Cleveland Christian Home this year. Thank you so much for helping make their Christmas a bit brighter! The gifts have been ordered from Amazon.com and I've posted the invoice.


Thu Nov 08, 2007 1:30 pm
Profile Email YIM WWW
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
The Pope of Literature


Joined: Nov 2004
Posts: 2553
Location: decentralized
Thanks: 0
Thanked: 0 time in 0 post
Gender: None specified

Post 
Chris OConnor wrote:
I really would like to believe I'm not such a follower and would be one of the few that stands up and puts an end to the evil.


I think that's part of the problem with Julian's question. Most everyone would like to believe that they'd voice their moral objections, or at least refuse to participate, but the experiment shows that a disproportionate number of people likely would not. So how do you know which side of the line you fall on? I don't know that you can know in advance of the situation. We could probably conjecture as to some rough criteria for making a guess, but without some form of experiential or experimental confirmation, that criteria would be little more than a guess.


_________________
If this rule were always observed; if no man allowed any pursuit whatsoever to interfere with the tranquility of his domestic affections, Greece had not been enslaved, Caesar would have spared his country, America would have been discovered more gradually, and the empires of Mexico and Peru had not been destroyed. -- Mary Shelley, "Frankenstein; or The Modern Prometheus"


Thu Nov 08, 2007 3:18 pm
Profile
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
Masters


Joined: Jul 2005
Posts: 450
Location: Sunnyvale, CA
Thanks: 5
Thanked: 43 times in 34 posts
Gender: None specified

Post 
Quote:
DH: One question that arises from this (and I agree with your point here Chris) is: are these good people still responsible for their bad behavior? Are we able to judge their deeds immoral, and then take another step and somehow hold them accountable?

Here are two perspectives for considering these issues:

1) Scientific / psychological: How much do situations determines people's beliefs and actions?

2) Moral: How can we judge people's actions? How much are they responsible for their actions.

Your answer to the first question will influence, but not determine, your answer to the second one. Personally, I'd rather focus on the first question, especially since Zimbardo's challenged my prior beliefs so much.



Fri Nov 09, 2007 12:26 am
Profile
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
Getting Comfortable


Joined: Oct 2007
Posts: 5
Thanks: 0
Thanked: 0 time in 0 post
Gender: None specified

Post 
I believe morality IS situational. Using murder, or the taking of another human beings life as an example:

The majority of people would agree that taking the life of another human being is wrong.

Yet we permit and accept it in war. Many people permit and accept it in the case of capital punishment and abortion.

Also okay in self-defense.

In the not-to-distant past, it was okay to take the life of slaves.

If we accept certain ways to justify murder in these cases, it doesn't seem that it would take a giant leap to be convinced of yet another reason for why it would be acceptable. (As happened in Rwanda).

One of my favorite quotes (I don't know the source) is: "There are no conditions to which a man cannot get accustomed, especially if he sees that everyone around him lives the same way."

If everyone around us is doing it, and it is an accepted practice in our society, or in our prisons, or among our ranks in war, perhaps we can convince ourselves or be convinced by others, that what we are doing IS moral.



Sun Nov 11, 2007 1:07 pm
Profile
Years of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membershipYears of membership
The Pope of Literature


Joined: Nov 2004
Posts: 2553
Location: decentralized
Thanks: 0
Thanked: 0 time in 0 post
Gender: None specified

Post 
qwaszxter wrote:
If everyone around us is doing it, and it is an accepted practice in our society, or in our prisons, or among our ranks in war, perhaps we can convince ourselves or be convinced by others, that what we are doing IS moral.


But does the fact that we can convince ourselves that doing X is moral actually make it moral?

For instance, would you give the Abu Ghraib defendants a pass if, instead of arguing that their context convinced them that it wouldn't be immoral to torture and humiliate inmates, the argued that in that particular context it simply was moral, and no change in context could invalidate that it was, in that particular time and place, okay to do what they did?

Or would you say that there is no such thing as morality apart from the circumstances that prevail in a given time and place? And if so, then are we justified in judging other people's behavior from the assumptions of our own time and place?


_________________
If this rule were always observed; if no man allowed any pursuit whatsoever to interfere with the tranquility of his domestic affections, Greece had not been enslaved, Caesar would have spared his country, America would have been discovered more gradually, and the empires of Mexico and Peru had not been destroyed. -- Mary Shelley, "Frankenstein; or The Modern Prometheus"


Sun Nov 11, 2007 1:55 pm
Profile
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 42 posts ] • Topic evaluate: Evaluations: 0, 0.00 on the average.Evaluations: 0, 0.00 on the average.Evaluations: 0, 0.00 on the average.Evaluations: 0, 0.00 on the average.Evaluations: 0, 0.00 on the average.  Go to page 1, 2, 3  Next



Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot post attachments in this forum

Search for:


A Nation Under Judgment by Richard Capriola


BookTalk.org Links 
Forum Rules & Tips
Frequently Asked Questions
BBCode Explained
Info for Authors & Publishers
Featured Book Suggestions
Author Interview Transcripts
Be a Book Discussion Leader!
    

Love to talk about books but don't have time for our book discussion forums? For casual book talk join us on Facebook.

Featured Books






BookTalk.org is a free book discussion group or online reading group or book club. We read and talk about both fiction and non-fiction books as a group. We host live author chats where booktalk members can interact with and interview authors. We give away free books to our members in book giveaway contests. Our booktalks are open to everybody who enjoys talking about books. Our book forums include book reviews, author interviews and book resources for readers and book lovers. Discussing books is our passion. We're a literature forum, or reading forum. Register a free book club account today! Suggest nonfiction and fiction books. Authors and publishers are welcome to advertise their books or ask for an author chat or author interview.


Navigation 
MAIN NAVIGATION

HOMEFORUMSBOOKSTRANSCRIPTSOLD FORUMSADVERTISELINKSFAQDONATETERMS OF USEPRIVACY POLICY

BOOK FORUMS FOR ALL BOOKS WE HAVE DISCUSSED
Frankenstein - by Mary ShelleyThe Big Questions - by Simon BlackburnScience Was Born of Christianity - by Stacy TrasancosThe Happiness Hypothesis - by Jonathan HaidtA Game of Thrones - by George R. R. MartinTempesta's Dream - by Vincent LoCocoWhy Nations Fail - by Daron Acemoglu and James RobinsonThe Drowning Girl - Caitlin R. KiernanThe Consolations of the Forest - by Sylvain TessonThe Complete Heretic's Guide to Western Religion: The Mormons - by David FitzgeraldA Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man - by James JoyceThe Divine Comedy - by Dante AlighieriThe Magic of Reality - by Richard DawkinsDubliners - by James JoyceMy Name Is Red - by Orhan PamukThe World Until Yesterday - by Jared DiamondThe Man Who Was Thursday - by by G. K. ChestertonThe Better Angels of Our Nature by Steven PinkerLord Jim by Joseph ConradThe Hobbit by J. R. R. TolkienThe Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas AdamsAtlas Shrugged by Ayn RandThinking, Fast and Slow - by Daniel KahnemanThe Righteous Mind - by Jonathan HaidtWorld War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War by Max BrooksMoby Dick: or, the Whale by Herman MelvilleA Visit from the Goon Squad by Jennifer EganLost Memory of Skin: A Novel by Russell BanksThe Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. KuhnHobbes: Leviathan by Thomas HobbesThe House of the Spirits - by Isabel AllendeArguably: Essays by Christopher HitchensThe Falls: A Novel (P.S.) by Joyce Carol OatesChrist in Egypt by D.M. MurdockThe Glass Bead Game: A Novel by Hermann HesseA Devil's Chaplain by Richard DawkinsThe Hero with a Thousand Faces by Joseph CampbellThe Brothers Karamazov by Fyodor DostoyevskyThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark TwainThe Moral Landscape by Sam HarrisThe Decameron by Giovanni BoccaccioThe Road by Cormac McCarthyThe Grand Design by Stephen HawkingThe Evolution of God by Robert WrightThe Tin Drum by Gunter GrassGood Omens by Neil GaimanPredictably Irrational by Dan ArielyThe Wind-Up Bird Chronicle: A Novel by Haruki MurakamiALONE: Orphaned on the Ocean by Richard Logan & Tere Duperrault FassbenderDon Quixote by Miguel De CervantesMusicophilia by Oliver SacksDiary of a Madman and Other Stories by Nikolai GogolThe Passion of the Western Mind by Richard TarnasThe Left Hand of Darkness by Ursula K. Le GuinThe Genius of the Beast by Howard BloomAlice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll Empire of Illusion by Chris HedgesThe Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner The Extended Phenotype by Richard DawkinsSmoke and Mirrors by Neil GaimanThe Selfish Gene by Richard DawkinsWhen Good Thinking Goes Bad by Todd C. RinioloHouse of Leaves by Mark Z. DanielewskiAmerican Gods: A Novel by Neil GaimanPrimates and Philosophers by Frans de WaalThe Enormous Room by E.E. CummingsThe Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar WildeGod Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything by Christopher HitchensThe Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco Dreams From My Father by Barack Obama Paradise Lost by John Milton Bad Money by Kevin PhillipsThe Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson BurnettGodless: How an Evangelical Preacher Became One of America's Leading Atheists by Dan BarkerThe Things They Carried by Tim O'BrienThe Limits of Power by Andrew BacevichLolita by Vladimir NabokovOrlando by Virginia Woolf On Being Certain by Robert A. Burton50 reasons people give for believing in a god by Guy P. HarrisonWalden: Or, Life in the Woods by Henry David ThoreauExile and the Kingdom by Albert CamusOur Inner Ape by Frans de WaalYour Inner Fish by Neil ShubinNo Country for Old Men by Cormac McCarthyThe Age of American Unreason by Susan JacobyTen Theories of Human Nature by Leslie Stevenson & David HabermanHeart of Darkness by Joseph ConradThe Stuff of Thought by Stephen PinkerA Thousand Splendid Suns by Khaled HosseiniThe Lucifer Effect by Philip ZimbardoResponsibility and Judgment by Hannah ArendtInterventions by Noam ChomskyGodless in America by George A. RickerReligious Expression and the American Constitution by Franklyn S. HaimanDeep Economy by Phil McKibbenThe God Delusion by Richard DawkinsThe Third Chimpanzee by Jared DiamondThe Woman in the Dunes by Abe KoboEvolution vs. Creationism by Eugenie C. ScottThe Omnivore's Dilemma by Michael PollanI, Claudius by Robert GravesBreaking The Spell by Daniel C. DennettA Peace to End All Peace by David FromkinThe Time Traveler's Wife by Audrey NiffeneggerThe End of Faith by Sam HarrisEnder's Game by Orson Scott CardThe Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time by Mark HaddonValue and Virtue in a Godless Universe by Erik J. WielenbergThe March by E. L DoctorowThe Ethical Brain by Michael GazzanigaFreethinkers: A History of American Secularism by Susan JacobyCollapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed by Jared DiamondThe Battle for God by Karen ArmstrongThe Future of Life by Edward O. WilsonWhat is Good? by A. C. GraylingCivilization and Its Enemies by Lee HarrisPale Blue Dot by Carl SaganHow We Believe: Science, Skepticism, and the Search for God by Michael ShermerLooking for Spinoza by Antonio DamasioLies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them by Al FrankenThe Red Queen by Matt RidleyThe Blank Slate by Stephen PinkerUnweaving the Rainbow by Richard DawkinsAtheism: A Reader edited by S.T. JoshiGlobal Brain by Howard BloomThe Lucifer Principle by Howard BloomGuns, Germs and Steel by Jared DiamondThe Demon-Haunted World by Carl SaganBury My Heart at Wounded Knee by Dee BrownFuture Shock by Alvin Toffler

OTHER PAGES WORTH EXPLORING
Banned Book ListOur Amazon.com SalesMassimo Pigliucci Rationally SpeakingOnline Reading GroupTop 10 Atheism BooksFACTS Book Selections

cron
Copyright © BookTalk.org 2002-2011. All rights reserved.
Website developed by MidnightCoder.ca
Display Pagerank